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A Study on the Quantitative Characteristics of Needle Force on the Acupuncture Practical Model
침자 술기 실습 모델에서 침감의 정량적 특성에 관한 연구
Korean J Acupunct 2018;35:149-158
Published online September 27, 2018;
© 2018 Society for Meridian and Acupoint.

Yeon Sun Lee1 , Seon Hye Kim2 , Eun Jung Kim2 , Seung Deok Lee3 , Kyung Ho Kim1 , Kap Sung Kim1 , Chan Yung Jung4

1Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, Dongguk University Ilsan Oriental Hospital, 2Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, Dongguk University Bundang Oriental Hospital, 3Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University, 4College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University
1동국대학교 일산한방병원 침구과, 2동국대학교 분당한방병원 침구과, 3동국대학교 한의과대학 침구과, 4동국대학교 한의과대학
Correspondence to: Chan Yung Jung
College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University, 32 Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang 10326, Korea
Tel: +82-31-961-9124, Fax: +82-31-961-9003, E-mail:
Received September 14, 2018; Revised September 20, 2018; Accepted September 20, 2018.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Objectives : In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the needle forces using needle insertion-measurement system and compared the needle sensation of each acupuncture practical model.
Methods : After inserting acupuncture with a sensor to six models, a lifting-thrusting motion was implemented using the needle insertion-measurement system. The needle force was measured repeatedly, and the measurement was analyzed based on the modified Karnopp friction model for a comparison of friction coefficients. After the insertion, practitioners did lifting-thrusting manipulations. They quantified the similarity of needle sensation with VAS (Visual Analogue Scale).
Results : When friction force and coefficients of friction in five different models were compared with a porcine shank model, all five models were significantly different from a porcine shank model, cotton and apple showing the closest frictional values to that of a porcine shank model. In the Cp and Cn values of cotton and in the Cp values of IM injection pad, there was no statistically significant difference. The similarity of the needle sensation between the porcine shank and five models was the highest in the apple, and overlapping papers was the lowest.
Conclusions : This study quantitatively compared the physical forces in the practical model when implementing lifting-thrusting manipulations, using a needle insertion-measurement system. We suggest that a reproducible exercise model that reflects the characteristics of various human tissues, such as viscoelasticity or strength, needs to be further developed. This will contribute to establishing standardized acupuncture practice training.
Keywords: acupuncture practical model, quantifying measurement, needle force, needle sensation

September 2018, 35 (3)
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