Korean Journal of Acupuncture

Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Summary of RCTs using focused ultrasound for acupoints

First author (year) Study design/sample size (analysis) Target disease Experimental group (medium; acupoint or location; irradiation time; power density or total power) Control group (medium; acupoint or location; irradiation time; power density or total power) Main outcomes Results Adverse events
Tsuruoka (2013)7) RCT/50 (50) Healthy FUS; LR3; 36 sec; 2.38 W/cm2 Manual acupuncture; LR3; 36 sec; - BFV 1) BFV decreased in Con group (p<0.05)
2) After 180s, BFV increased significantly (p<0.05) in both group and significantly difference between Exp & Con (p=0.012)
Wei (2020)8) RCT/16 (16) Healthy FUS; ST36; 9.5 min; 1.75 W Manual Acupuncture; ST36; 9.5 min; - 1) Psychophysical responses
2) fMRI
1) No significantly difference “soreness, numbness, or dull pain” (p>0.05). But “fullness” significant stronger MA>US (p<0.05).“warmness” significant stronger US>MA (p<0.05).
2) Both US and MA at ST36 assent to similar activated regions with substantial signal intensity.
Yoo (2014)9) RCT/10 (10) Healthy FUS; LI4; 1 min; 1 or 3 W/cm2 (A) Needle acupuncture
(B) Sham acupuncture
(C) Tactile stimulation
(D) FUS; 1 min; 1 W/cm2
(E) FUS; 1 min; 3 W/cm2
(F) Sham FUS; LI4; 1 min; -
10 Deqi-related and non-related sensation score 1) Deqi-related sensation score:no difference between (A) and (E) (p>0.05) except ‘aching’ and ‘soreness’
2) Non-degi related sensation score:(A)>(E) (all p<0.05)
Liu (2011)a10) RCT/40 (40) Healthy FUS; ST36; 30 min; 0.625∼5 W Placebo (no dosage) Electronic Von Frey 1) Significantly difference between two groups (p<0.01) NM
Jing (2014)11) RCT/89 (74) Shoulder pain, low back pain Patients Low back pain: FUS; EX-B2, ST36, Bl40; each 10 min, total 30 min; 0.5 W/cm2
Shoulder pain: FUS; LI15, GB21, LI4; each 10 min, total 30 min; 0.5 W/cm2
Nothing VAS 1) Exp: 5.08±1.20→1.58±1.03
2) Con: 5.30±1.82→4.10±1.51 (p=0.000)
Liu (2011)b12) RCT/40 (37) Low back pain patients FUS; ST36, BL40, EX-B2; each 10 min, total 30 min; 0.625∼5 W Placebo (no dosage) 1) Effective rate
2) VAS
1) Immediately after treatment
: Exp 100%
: Con 27.8%
2) Consistently significant higher in the Exp group after treatment 1,7,14,21,28 days.
1 case: mild pain
Li (2019)13) RCT/120 (120) Osteoarthritis patients FUS; ST35, EX-LE4, ST34, GB34, BL17, SP10, BL23, SP9, ST36; 5 min; 0.625∼5 W FUS; EX-LE4; 5 min; 0.625∼5 W 1) Lequesne score
2) Serum SOD
3) MMP-13
1) Lequesne: Exp<Con (p<0.05)
2) Serum SOD: Exp>Con (p<0.05)
3) MMP-13: Exp<Con (p<0.05)

sec : second, min : minute, FUS : focused ultrasound, BFV : blood flow volume, Con : control group, Exp : experimental group, AE : adverse event, NM : not mentioned, MA : manual acupuncture, US : ultrasound, VAS : visual analog scale.

Korean J Acupunct 2023;40:79-89 https://doi.org/10.14406/acu.2023.009
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