Korean Journal of Acupuncture

Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Details of fire acupuncture treatment in South Korean studies

Author, year Study design Disease Frequency Treatment duration Number of sessions Acupoints Depth of insertion (mm) Needle manipulation (supplementation and draining method) Needle retention time

Local Distal
Fire acupuncture
Park, 199815) Case reports Coldness of whole body or limbs NA NA NA NA GV7, CV4, LI11, LI4, ST36, LU9 NA NA Immediately
Ahn, 200018) CCT (cross-over) Healthy adult 1/3 day 1∼3 days 1 None LI4, ST36 NA NA Immediately (unclear)
Electronic fire acupuncture
Cha, 201519) CCT Shoulder pain (ALS) 2/week 4 weeks 8 LU2, HT1, SI9, SI11, GB21, TE14 None NA NA NA (3∼5-sec Electrical stimulation)
“warm needling”-like
Chang, 201116) RCT Low back pain 2/week Unclear (about 14 days) 3 Sacroiliac articulation NA 35 NA NA (3∼5-times heating)
Jung, 201517) RCT Lumbar herniated intervertebral disc 1/day 16 days >7 (unclear) Bilateral GB30, ischium, BL23 GV3, GV4, NA 20∼40 NA 15-min
An, 200938) Case reports Anterior talofibular ligament injury 1/week 1∼2 weeks 1∼2 Tender points NA Up to periosteal NA NA (5∼7-sec heating)
An, 201039) Case reports Calcaneofibular ligament injury 1/week Various 1∼2 Tender points NA Up to periosteal NA NA (5∼7-sec heating)
Jang, 201040) Case reports lliolumbar ligament sprain 1/week 7∼14 days 1∼2 Bilateral BL26 NA 40∼50 NA NA (5∼7-sec heating, 2 times)
Jahng, 201141) Case reports Ankle sprain 1/week Various 1∼2 Tender points NA Up to periosteal NA NA (5∼7-sec heating)
Jang, 201142) Case reports Anterior talofibular ligament injury 1/week Various 2 Tender points NA Up to periosteal NA NA (5∼7-sec heating)
Han, 200220) Case reports Stable compression fracture 1/2 day 8-day 4 Spinous process of the 12th thoracic vertebra NA 20 NA NA (2∼3-min heating)
Kim, 200721) Case reports Sacroiliac joint syndrome 1/day 5 days 5 BL26, BL28 (one place each) NA 20 NA NA
Ko, 200922) Case reports Medial collateral ligament injury 1/2 day 6 days 3 Affected part NA NA NA Immediately (30∼60-sec heating)
Kim, 201023) Case reports Post-stroke patient with shoulder pain 1/day 7 days 7 SI11 NA NA NA NA (3 times heating)
Lee, 201024) Case reports Traumatic injury of medial collateral ligament 1/2 day∼1/week 1∼20 days 1∼3 Affected part NA 5∼10 NA Immediately (2∼3 times heating)
Lim, 201025) Case reports Biceps tendinitis 3/week Unclear 5 Ashi points NA 10∼15 NA NA (5∼6-min heating)
Yeon, 201026) Case reports Low back pain (ALS) NA NA NA Tender points NA NA NA Immediately (3∼4 times heating)
Kim, 201127) Case reports Internal derangement of knee 1/7∼10 day 18 days 3 Affected part NA 8∼12 NA 10 min.
Lee, 201128) Case reports Trigger finger Irregular 67∼89 days 10∼18 Ashi points NA Up to periosteal NA Immediately
Kim, 201229) Case reports Ligament ischiofemorale injury treated 1/5∼7 day 18 days 3 Affected part NA 0.40x40 mm needle: 30∼35
0.5x60 mm needle: 45∼50
NA 10 min (15∼20-sec heating, 3 times)
Lee, 201230) Case reports Ankle ligament injury 1/3 day 13∼16 days 5∼7 Tender points NA Up to periosteal NA NA (5∼7-sec heating)
Lim, 201231) Case reports Postpartum low back pain 1/3 day 13∼19 days 3∼4 Tender points NA 20∼25 NA NA (15∼20-sec, 2∼3 times)
Park, 201232) Case reports External epicondylitis 1/1∼10 day 2∼52 days 2∼7 Ashi points LI10, or LI11, or none Up to periosteal NA Immediately (10∼15-sec heating)
Yeon, 201233) Case reports lumbar ligament sprain 1/day, NA 1 days, NA 1, NA Affected part NA 40∼50 NA NA (10∼15-sec, 3 times)
Son, 201334) Case reports Spondylolisthesis 1/day 13∼29 days 13∼29 L3-4, L4-5, or L5-S1 NA 40 NA NA
Hong, 201435) Case reports Frozen shoulder 2∼3/week 13∼36 days 1∼11 Ashi points NA 10∼15 NA NA (5∼6-sec heating)
Kim, 201736) Case reports Vertebrae compression fracture 1/day 2∼8 days 2∼8 GV4, GV5, GV8, GV9, GV10, or L1∼3 NA 15∼20 NA NA (3∼5-sec heating)
Suh, 201737) Case reports Rotator cuff tear 1/day 6 days 6 Tenderness points NA 10∼15 NA Immediately (5∼10-sec heating, 3 times)

ATFL : anterior talofibular ligament, CCT : controlled clinical trial, CFL : calcaneofibular ligament, NA : not available, PTFL : posterior talofibular ligament, RCT : randomized controlled trial.

Korean J Acupunct 2021;38:209-21 https://doi.org/10.14406/acu.2021.034
© 2021 Korean J Acupunct