Korean Journal of Acupuncture

Fig. 5.

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Fig. 5. Changes of neurobiological mechanisms in the brain and spinal cord of pain and depression comorbidity model. Blue color represents neurotransmitters, red color represents oxidative stress related biomarkers, green color represents inflammatory biomarkers, and purple color represents cell death related biomarkers. 2-AG : 2-Arachidonoylglycerol, BDNF : brain-derived neurotrophic factor, DA : dopamine, ERK : extracellular signal regulated kinase, GFAP : glial fibrillary acidic protein, GluN2B : glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-2, GSH : gluthathione, IL-1β : interleukin-1β, iNOS : inducible nitric oxide synthase, NOS : nitric oxide synthase, MAO : monoamine oxidase, MAPK : mitogen-activated protein kinase, NA : noradrenaline, NF-κB : nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, NLRP3 : NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containning protein 3, NMDA : N-methyl-D-aspartate, P2X4 : P2X purinoceptor 4, ROS : reactive oxygen species, 5-HT : serotonin, SOD : superoxide dismutase, TNF-α : tumor necrosis factor-α.
Korean J Acupunct 2021;38:75-99 https://doi.org/10.14406/acu.2021.010
© 2021 Korean J Acupunct