Korean Journal of Acupuncture

Fig. 3.

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Fig. 3. Changes of neurobiological mechanisms in the brain and spinal cord of depression-like behavior observed in pain model. Blue color represents neurotransmitters, red color represents oxidative stress related biomarkers, green color represents inflammatory biomarkers, and black color represents cell growth related biomarkers. ADRA2A : alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (α2A adrenoceptor), AKT : protein kinase B, BDNF : brain-derived neurotrophic factor, CaMKII : Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, CD11 : integrin α, CREB : cAMP response element-binding protein, COX-2 : cyclooxygenase-2, DA : dopamine, ERK : extracellular signal regulated kinase, GABA : gamma-aminobutyric acid, GAD : glutamate decarboxylase, GFAP : glial fibrillary acidic protein, GluR5 : metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, GluR6 : glutamate receptor 6, GSH : gluthathione, GST : glutathione S-transferases, HO-1 : heme oxygenase-1, Iba1 : ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1, Ido1 : indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1, IL : interleukin, IFN-γ : interferon gamma, KYN : kynurenine, NOS : nitric oxide synthase, MAO : monoamine oxidase, MAPK : mitogen-activated protein kinase, MOR : μ-opioid receptors, MPO : myeloperoxidase, mTOR : mechanistic target of rapamycin, NA : noradrenaline, NF-κB : nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, NLRP3 : NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containning protein 3, NMDA : N-methyl-D-aspartate, NR1 : NMDA receptor 1, NR2B : NMDA receptor 2, Nrf2 : nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, NQO1 : NAD(P)H dehydrogenase 1, PIK3CA : phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha, P2X4 : P2X purinoceptor 4, P2XY7 : P2X purinoceptor 7, PI3K : phosphoinositide 3-kinases, PP1R9B : protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 9B, ROS : reactive oxygen species, 5-HT : serotonin, SOD : superoxide dismutase, TLR2 : toll-like receptors 2, TNF-α : tumor necrosis factor-α, TRIP8b : tetratricopetide repeat-containing Rab8b-interacting protein, TRP : tryptophan.
Korean J Acupunct 2021;38:75-99 https://doi.org/10.14406/acu.2021.010
© 2021 Korean J Acupunct